First of all, install symlinks if it is not installed :
sudo yum install symlinks
and here is the description:
Description : The symlinks utility performs maintenance on symbolic links.
: Symlinks checks for symlink problems, including dangling symlinks
: which point to nonexistent files. Symlinks can also automatically
: convert absolute symlinks to relative symlinks.
: Install the symlinks package if you need a program for maintaining
: symlinks on your system.
and the help for the same:
symlinks: scan/change symbolic links – v1.3 – by Mark Lord
Usage: symlinks [-cdorstv] dirlist
Flags: -c == change absolute/messy links to relative
-d == delete dangling links
-o == warn about links across file systems
-r == recurse into subdirs
-s == shorten lengthy links (displayed in output only when -c not specified)
-t == show what would be done by -c
-v == verbose (show all symlinks)
So, if you want to delete all the invalid symlinks in the current directory the just execute:
symlinks -d .
symlinks -d -r .
I was writing a bash script that would do some operations and read and write to file. Seems that that was pretty simple with
while read line
and then use redirection operations like “>” and “>>” to write to file. Done with the script pretty fast. So far so good, when I went for real life tests, no one was interested in using it, why? Simple, it was simply taking too long. The file was reading about 10K lines and writing about 50 lines and was taking about more than 10 minutes.
So, I sat down to debug what can increase the performance of the script and one change made the difference. The script was taking a lot of time in opening and closing the file. Pretty evident, isn’t it!!!
When using “>” or “>>”, each operation would require bash to open the file, write to it and close it. Un-necessarily we would be doing a open and close for each write operation. Pathetic and useless waste of CPU power and time. How to avoid this?
Open a file and get the file descriptor. Keep writing to the file descriptor and close the descriptor after you are done with the file operations.
exec 3> File
echo "" >&3
In the above commands,
will open the file descriptor FD 3
Note that when you are working with FD, you don’t need “>>” as the echo command will put the statements in the current position of file. So, if you want to append to the file use
Then you can write to the FD with redirection and finally close the descriptor with
tee to a file descriptor $ tee >(cat – >&2) the tee command does fine with file names, but not so much with file descriptors, such as &2 (stderr). This uses process redirection to tee to the specified descriptor.
In the sample output, it\’s being used to tee to stderr, which is connected with the terminal, and to wc -l, which is also outputting to the terminal. The result is the output of bash –version followed by the linecount
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by David Winterbottom (codeinthehole.com)